Intersection and union types denote conjunctions and disjunctions of properties. Using bidirectional typechecking, intersection types are relatively straightforward, but union types present challenges. For union types, we can case-analyze a subterm of union type when it appears in evaluation position (replacing the subterm with a variable, and checking that term twice under appropriate assumptions). This technique preserves soundness in a call-by-value semantics.
Sadly, there are so many choices of subterms that a direct implementation is not practical. But carefully transforming programs into let-normal form drastically reduces the number of choices. The key results are soundness and completeness: a typing derivation (in the system with too many subterm choices) exists for a program if and only if a derivation exists for the let-normalized program.