Automatic Generation of Scenarios for System-level Simulation-based Verification of Autonomous Driving Systems

Srajan Goyal
(Fondazione Bruno Kessler and University of Trento)
Alberto Griggio
(Fondazione Bruno Kessler)
Jacob Kimblad
(Fondazione Bruno Kessler)
Stefano Tonetta
(Fondazione Bruno Kessler)

With increasing complexity of Automated Driving Systems (ADS), ensuring their safety and reliability has become a critical challenge. The Verification and Validation (V&V) of these systems are particularly demanding when AI components are employed to implement perception and/or control functions. In ESA-funded project VIVAS, we developed a generic framework for system-level simulation-based V&V of autonomous systems. The approach is based on a simulation model of the system, an abstract model that describes symbolically the system behavior, and formal methods to generate scenarios and verify the simulation executions. Various coverage criteria can be defined to guide the automated generation of the scenarios.

In this paper, we describe the instantiation of the VIVAS framework for an ADS case study. This is based on the integration of CARLA, a widely-used driving simulator, and its ScenarioRunner tool, which enables the creation of diverse and complex driving scenarios. This is also used in the CARLA Autonomous Driving Challenge to validate different ADS agents for perception and control based on AI, shared by the CARLA community. We describe the development of an abstract ADS model and the formulation of a coverage criterion that focuses on the behaviors of vehicles relative to the vehicle with ADS under verification. Leveraging the VIVAS framework, we generate and execute various driving scenarios, thus testing the capabilities of the AI components. The results show the effectiveness of VIVAS in automatically generating scenarios for system-level simulation-based V&V of an automated driving system using CARLA and ScenarioRunner. Therefore, they highlight the potential of the approach as a powerful tool in the future of ADS V&V methodologies.

In Marie Farrell, Matt Luckcuck, Mario Gleirscher and Maike Schwammberger: Proceedings Fifth International Workshop on Formal Methods for Autonomous Systems (FMAS 2023), Leiden, The Netherlands, 15th and 16th of November 2023, Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science 395, pp. 113–129.
Published: 15th November 2023.

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