1. Luca de Alfaro (1998): Formal Verification of Probabilistic Systems. Thesis CS-TR-98-1601. Stanford University, Department of Computer Science.
  2. Copyright by Andrew Makhorin: glpk.
  3. James Aspnes & Maurice Herlihy (1990): Fast Randomized Consensus Using Shared Memory. J. Algorithms 11(3), pp. 441–461. Available at
  4. Andrea Bianco & Luca de Alfaro (1995): Model Checking of Probabalistic and Nondeterministic Systems. In: FSTTCS 1995, pp. 499–513. Available at
  5. Stephen P. Bradley, Arnoldo C. Hax & Thomas L. Magnanti (1977): Applied Mathematical Programming. Addison-Wesley.
  6. Costas Courcoubetis & Mihalis Yannakakis (1990): Markov Decision Processes and Regular Events (Extended Abstract). In: Mike Paterson: ICALP, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 443. Springer, pp. 336–349. Available at
  7. F. D'Epenoux (1963): A probabilistic production and inventory problem. Management Science 10, pp. 98–108.
  8. John Fearnley (2010): Exponential Lower Bounds for Policy Iteration. In: ICALP 2010 (2), pp. 551–562. Available at
  9. Vojtech Forejt, Marta Z. Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman & David Parker (2011): Automated Verification Techniques for Probabilistic Systems. In: SFM, pp. 53–113. Available at
  10. M. Kwiatkowska, G. Norman & D. Parker (2011): PRISM 4.0: Verification of Probabilistic Real-time Systems. In: G. Gopalakrishnan & S. Qadeer: CAV 2011, LNCS 6806. Springer, pp. 585–591. Available at
  11. Martin L. Puterman (1994): Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming, 1st edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA.
  12. M. Stoelinga & F. Vaandrager (1999): Root Contention in IEEE 1394. In: J.-P. Katoen: Proc. 5th International AMAST Workshop on Real-Time and Probabilistic Systems (ARTS'99), LNCS 1601. Springer, pp. 53–74. Available at
  13. Yinyu Ye (2011): The Simplex and Policy-Iteration Methods Are Strongly Polynomial for the Markov Decision Problem with a Fixed Discount Rate. Mathematics of Operations Research 36(4), pp. 593–603. Available at

Comments and questions to:
For website issues: