1. Marco Alberti, Ana Sofia Gomes, Ricardo Gonçalves, João Leite & Martin Slota (2011): Normative Systems Represented as Hybrid Knowledge Bases. In: João Leite, Paolo Torroni, Thomas Ågotnes, Guido Boella & Leon van der Torre: Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 12th International Workshop, CLIMA XII, Barcelona, Spain, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6814. Springer, Berlin, pp. 330–346. Available at
  2. Franz Baader, Diego Calvanese, Deborah L. McGuinness, Daniele Nardi & Peter F. Patel-Schneider (2003): The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation, and Applications. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511711787.
  3. Alex Borgida (1996): On the relative expressiveness of description logics and predicate logics. Artif. Intell. 82(1-2), pp. 353–367, doi:10.1016/0004-3702(96)00004-5.
  4. Vedran Kasalica, Matthias Knorr, João Leite & Carlos Lopes (2020): NoHR: An Overview. Künstliche Intell. 34(4), pp. 509–515, doi:10.1007/s13218-020-00650-1.
  5. Matthias Knorr, José Júlio Alferes & Pascal Hitzler (2011): Local closed world reasoning with description logics under the well-founded semantics. Artif. Intell. 175(9-10), pp. 1528 – 1554, doi:10.1016/j.artint.2011.01.007.
  6. Hector J. Levesque (1984): Foundations of a Functional Approach to Knowledge Representation. Artif. Intell. 23(2), pp. 155–212, doi:10.1016/0004-3702(84)90009-2.
  7. Vladimir Lifschitz (1991): Nonmonotonic Databases and Epistemic Queries. In: John Mylopoulos & Raymond Reiter: 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 1991). Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 381–386.
  8. Fangfang Liu & Jia-Huai You (2017): Three-valued semantics for hybrid MKNF knowledge bases revisited. Artificial Intelligence 252(Supplement C), pp. 123 – 138, doi:10.1016/j.artint.2017.08.003. Available at
  9. Carlos Lopes, Matthias Knorr & João Leite (2017): NoHR: Integrating XSB Prolog with the OWL 2 Profiles and Beyond. In: Marcello Balduccini & Tomi Janhunen: 14th International Conference on Logic Programming and Non-monotonic Reasoning (LPNMR 2017), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10377. Springer, pp. 236–249, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-61660-5_22.
  10. Boris Motik & Riccardo Rosati (2010): Reconciling Description Logics and Rules. J. ACM 57(5), pp. 30:1–30:62, doi:10.1145/1754399.1754403.
  11. Teodor C. Przymusinski (1989): Every Logic Program Has a Natural Stratification And an Iterated Least Fixed Point Model. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS-1989). ACM Press, pp. 11–21. Available at
  12. Raymond Reiter (1990): On Asking What a Database Knows. In: John W. Lloyd: Computational Logic: Symposium Proceedings, Brussels, November 13/14, 1990. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 96–113, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-76274-1_4.
  13. Fabrizio Riguzzi & Terrance Swift (2011): The PITA System: Tabling and Answer Subsumption for Reasoning under Uncertainty. Theor. Pract. Log. Prog. 11(4–5), pp. 433–449, doi:10.1017/S147106841100010X.
  14. Taisuke Sato (1995): A Statistical Learning Method for Logic Programs with Distribution Semantics. In: Leon Sterling: Logic Programming, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Logic Programming, Tokyo, Japan, June 13-16, 1995. MIT Press, pp. 715–729, doi:10.7551/mitpress/4298.003.0069.
  15. U. Sattler, D. Calvanese & R. Molitor (2003): Relationships with other Formalisms. In: Description Logic Handbook, pp. 137–177, doi:10.5555/885746.885751.
  16. Riccardo Zese, Elena Bellodi, Fabrizio Riguzzi, Giuseppe Cota & Evelina Lamma (2018): Tableau Reasoning for Description Logics and its Extension to Probabilities. Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. 82(1–3), pp. 101–130, doi:10.1007/s10472-016-9529-3.
  17. Riccardo Zese, Giuseppe Cota, Evelina Lamma, Elena Bellodi & Fabrizio Riguzzi (2019): Probabilistic DL Reasoning with Pinpointing Formulas: A Prolog-based Approach. Theor. Pract. Log. Prog. 19(3), pp. 449–476, doi:10.1017/S1471068418000480.

Comments and questions to:
For website issues: