The notion of equality between two observables will play many important roles in foundations of quantum theory. However, the standard probabilistic interpretation based on the conventional Born formula does not give the probability of equality relation for a pair of arbitrary observables, since the Born formula gives the probability distribution only for a commuting family of observables. In this paper, quantum set theory developed by Takeuti and the present author is used to systematically extend the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory to define the probability of equality relation for a pair of arbitrary observables. Applications of this new interpretation to measurement theory are discussed briefly. |