Linux Cheat Sheet

Working with Files

print working directory
ls [options] [file ...]
list directory contents; options:
  • -a don't ignore names that begin with a dot
  • -l list in long format
  • -S sort by size, largest first
  • -t sort by time modified, most recent first
  • -r reverse sort order
cd [dir]
change working directory; shortcuts:
  • . current directory
  • .. parent directory
  • ~ your home directory
  • ~user user's home directory
mkdir directory ...
make directories
mv source target
rename source to target
mv source ... directory
relocate each source into directory.
cp [options] source ... target
copy each source into target
cp [options] source ... target
copy each source into target
rm [options] file ...
remove each file; options:
  • -d remove empty directories
  • -r remove files and directories recursively
  • -f do not prompt for confirmation, DANGEROUS
cat [file ...]
concatenate each file and print to screen
head [-N] [file ...]
display first N (default 10) lines of each file
tail [-N] [file ...]
display last N (default 10) lines of each file

Informative Commands

display date and time
show your user id
show system uptime and load
show your recent commands

Keyboard Shortcuts

To type C-a, hold Control while typing A.

To type M-a, hold Alt while typing A,
or tap Escape then type A.

    these are essentially the same keybindings as those of Emacs.
  • C-a jump to beginning of line
  • C-e jump to end of line
  • C-k delete to end of line
  • C-u delete to start of line
  • C-w delete previous word
  • C-y insert last deleted text
  • C-r interactively search previous commands
  • C-c interrupt current command
  • C-z suspend current command (resume with fg)
  • C-d delete character forward; or, end of input
  • M-d delete word forward
  • or C-p previous line entered
  • or C-n next line entered
  • or C-b backwards character
  • or C-f forwards character

bash Shortcuts

  • !! repeat last command
  • TAB or C-i complete word
  • TABTAB list possible completions