|Abstracts on Global Climate Change|
Water in the Earth’s atmosphere
Quante, M Matthias, V
JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV 139: 37-61
Water is the key to our existence on this planet and it is involved in nearly all biological, geological, and chemical processes. Life on Earth depends very much on the remarkable properties of water. The availability of freshwater is for many regions one of the key concerns in connection with global climate change. The atmosphere contains only about 0.001% of the water available on our planet. Despite this small amount its horizontal and vertical distribution plays a key role in the global water cycle and the Earth’s climate. The atmosphere has direct connections to most of the other reservoirs and steers the redistribution of water between them with an average turnover time of about 10 days. Evaporation over the oceans exceeds precipitation and over land evapotranspiration amounts only to 2/3 of the precipitation reaching the ground. Consequently, there is a net flux of water from the oceans towards the continents, of course via the atmosphere, which has the largest overall volume of fluxes. Water is present in the atmosphere as solid, liquid, or gas. Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and, in addition, changes of water phase and cloud-radiation interaction contribute strongly to the global energy cycle. Water is also a physically and chemically integral part of other biogeochemical cycles. Although there have been large efforts and improvements in recent years, uncertainties in quantifying the components of the atmospheric water cycle still exist. Observational capabilities on the global scale are not satisfactory at present, but the advent of new satellites devoted to the global observation of precipitation and cloud systems along with dedicated modelling projects certainly will improve the situation. Progress is urgently needed to adequately contribute to the answer of one of the central questions in the context of global warming: Is the hydrological cycle accelerating?.
Evaluating long-term trends in annual and seasonal precipitation in Taiwan
Yu, PS Yang, TC Kuo, CC
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 20:6 1007-1023
This work studies long-term rainfall variations in Taiwan and provides local climate change analyses to global climate change. Around a century of rainfall data from 33 rain-gauges populate the database used herein. Statistical tests, such as cumulative deviations, Mann-Whitney-Pettitt statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis test, were first employed to determine whether annual rainfall series exhibit any regular trend. Analytical results indicate that the annual rainfall has increased in northern Taiwan, declined in central and southern Taiwan, and exhibited no clear tendency in Eastern Taiwan. Almost all of these rainfall series changed significantly around 1960, which date divides historical rainfall series into two sample groups. This change in the seasonal rainfall was further investigated.
Personal values, beliefs, and ecological risk perception
Slimak, MW Dietz, T
RISK ANALYSIS 26:6 1689-1705
A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change to commercial fishing, reveals that the lay public is more concerned about low-probability, high-consequence risks whereas the risk professionals are more concerned about risks that pose long-term, ecosystem-level impacts. To test the explanatory power of the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory for risk perception, respondents were questioned about their personal values, spiritual beliefs, and worldviews. The most consistent predictors of the risk rankings are belief in the new ecological paradigm (NEP) and Schwartz’s altruism. The NEP and Schwartz’s altruism explain from 19% to 46% of the variance in the risk rankings. Religious beliefs account for less than 6% of the variance and do not show a consistent pattern in predicting risk perception although religious fundamentalists are generally less concerned about the risk items. While not exerting as strong an impact, social-structural variables do have some influence on risk perception. Ethnicities show no effect on the risk scales but the more educated and financially well-off are less concerned about the risk items. Political leanings have no direct influence on risk rankings, but indirectly affect rankings through the NEP. These results reveal that the VBN theory is a plausible explanation for the differences measured in the respondents’ perception of ecological risk.
Frequency of debris flows and rockfall along the Mendoza river valley (Central Andes), Argentina: Associated risk and future scenario
QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL 158: 110-121
The frequency of debris flows and rockfalls was estimated by temporal distribution of these events during the last 50 years. This parameter was expressed by annual probability of occurrence and mean interval of recurrence of historical events. More recurrent events in this sector of the Central Andes are associated with the Guido locality and tunnels situated along International road No. 7. Furthermore, these events are more frequent in Cordillera Frontal where the mean recurrence interval was lower than in Precordillera. The maximum interval of recurrence is rarely greater than 20 years, showing the activity of these events on human lives and infrastructure in this region. The accuracy of the determined recurrence frequency is discussed. A future scenario indicates that landslides will be probably more frequent under global climate change. As a consequence, those most vulnerable elements in the region, the international access routes, may be severely damaged in the future, implying an adverse impact in our regional economy. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.