|Abstracts on Global Climate Change|
Storage and release of fossil organic carbon related to weathering of sedimentary rocks
Copard, Y Amiotte-Suchet, P Di-Giovanni, C
EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS 258:1-2 345-357
The biogeochemical carbon cycle, which plays an undeniable role in global climate change, is defined both by the size of carbon reservoirs (such as the atmosphere, biomass, soil and bedrock) and the exchange between them of various mineral and organic carbon forms. Among these carbon forms, fossil organic carbon (FOC) (i.e., the ancient organic matter stored in sedimentary rocks) is widely observed in modem environments but is not included in the supergene carbon budget. Using a digitized map of the world and an existing model of CO2 consumption associated with rock weathering, we establish the global distribution of FOC stored in the first meter of sedimentary rocks and a first estimation of annual FOC delivery to the modem environment resulting from chemical weathering of these rocks. Results are given for the world’s 40 major river basins and extended to the entire continental surface. With a mean value of I 100 10(9) t, mainly controlled by shale distribution, the global FOC stock is significant and comparable to that of soil organic carbon (1500 10(9) t). The annual chemical delivery of FOC, estimated at 43 10(6) t yr(-1) and controlled by the areal distribution of shales and runoff is of the same order of magnitude as the FOC output flux to oceans. Chemical weathering of bedrock within the Amazon basin produces one-quarter of the total global flux of FOC derived from chemical weathering, and thus is expected to govern FOC release on a global scale. These results raise important questions concerning the role of FOC in the modem carbon cycle as well as the origin and the budget of carbon in soils and rivers. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Strontium isotope tracing of terrigenous sediment dispersal in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Implications for constraining frontal positions
Hemming, SR van de Flierdt, T Goldstein, SL Franzese, AM Roy, M Gastineau, G Landrot, G
GEOCHEMISTRY GEOPHYSICS GEOSYSTEMS 8: -
 The vigor of the glacial Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the locations of frontal boundaries are important parameters for understanding the role of the Southern Ocean in global climate change. Toward the goal of understanding the locations of currents we present a survey of Sr isotope ratios in terrigenous sediments around the perimeter of Antarctica. The pattern of the variations within the modern ACC is used to suggest that terrigenous sediment from Antarctica is injected into the ACC via the Ross and Weddell gyres in the south. North of the main ACC the Sr isotopes reflect continental contributions from Africa, Australia-New Zealand, and South America. Along a transect northward from the Ross Sea, Sr isotope ratios show a decrease from higher values in the south ( Antarctic provenance) to lower values in the north ( provenance from New Zealand). This otherwise monotonic decrease is interrupted within the ACC by a “zigzag” to lower and then higher values, which accompanies minimum terrigenous flux. This zigzag requires contributions from two additional sediment sources beyond the main Antarctic and New Zealand end-members. The lower Sr isotope ratios are attributable to greater contributions from basaltic sources within the current, a consistent pattern around the ACC. The samples with higher Sr isotope ratios point to an additional contributor, possibly a wind-transported component from Australia. During the LGM there is a systematic geographical variation in the Sr isotope ratios, similar to that of the Holocene. A small offset of the zigzag to the north ( approximately 1 degrees-2 degrees) may indicate a small northward shift of the southern boundary of the ACC. More highly resolved data are required to test whether this northward shift is really significant and whether it applies to other ACC fronts during the LGM.
Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements
Choi, YH Wang, Y
GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 18:4 -
[ 1] Coastal wetlands are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, the dynamics of carbon ( C) cycling in coastal wetlands and its response to sea level change associated with global warming is still poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the long-term and short-term rates of C accumulation, using C and C isotopic measurements of peat cores collected along a soil chronosequence, in a coastal wetland in north Florida. The long-term C accumulation rates determined by examining the C inventory and the radioactive decay of radiocarbon as a function of depth in the peat cores decrease with time from -130 +/- 9 g C/m(2)/yr over the last century to -13 +/- 2 g C/m(2)/yr over the millennium timescale. The short-term C accumulation rates estimated by examining the differences in the radiocarbon and C contents of the surfacial peat between archived ( 1985, 1988) and present ( 1996 and 1997) samples range from 42 to 193 g C/m(2)/yr in low marsh, from 18 to 184 g C/m(2)/yr in middle marsh, and from -50 to 181 g C/m(2)/yr in high marsh. The high end-values of our estimated short-term C accumulation rates are comparable to the estimated rates of C sequestration in coastal wetlands reported by Chmura et al. [ 2003], but are significantly higher than our estimated long-term rates in the marshes and are also much higher than the published rates of C sequestration in northern peatlands. The higher recent rates of C accumulation in coastal marshes, in comparison with the longer-term rates, are due to slow but continuous decomposition of organic matter in the peat over time. However, other factors such as increased primary production in the coastal wetland over the last decades or century, due to a rise in mean sea level and/or CO2 and nitrogen fertilization effect, could also have contributed to the large difference between the recent and longer-term rates. Our data indicate that salt marshes in this area have been and continue to be a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of higher rates of C sequestration and lower CH4 emissions, coastal wetlands could be more valuable C sinks per unit area than other ecosystems in a warmer world.