|Abstracts on Global Climate Change|
Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies
Rummukainen, M Raisanen, J Bjorge, D Christensen, JH Christensen, OB Iversen, T Jylha, K Olafsson, H Tuomenvirta, H
NORDIC HYDROLOGY 34:5 399-412
According to global climate projections, a substantial global climate change will occur during the next decades, under the assumption of continuous anthropogenic climate forcing. Global models, although fundamental in simulating the response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing are typically geographically too coarse to well represent many regional or local features. In the Nordic region, climate studies are conducted in each of the Nordic countries to prepare regional climate projections with more detail than in global ones. Results so far indicate larger temperature changes in the Nordic region than in the global mean, regional increases and decreases in net precipitation, longer growing season, shorter snow season etc. These in turn affect runoff, snowpack, groundwater, soil frost and moisture, and thus hydropower production potential, flooding risks etc. Regional climate models do not yet fully incorporate hydrology. Water resources studies are carried out off-line using hydrological models. This requires archived meteorological output from climate models. This paper discusses Nordic regional climate scenarios for use in regional water resources studies. Potential end-users of water resources scenarios are the hydropower industry, dam safety instances and planners of other lasting infrastructure exposed to precipitation, river flows and flooding.
Reducing the impacts of transportation on global warming - Summary of New York Greenhouse Gas Task Force recommendations
Winkelman, S Dierkers, G
ENERGY, AIR QUALITY, AND FUELS 2003 :1842 83-90
Global climate change is fundamentally caused by fossil fuel combustion. The transportation sector generates more than one-third of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in New York and represents the fastest-growing source of GHG emissions in the state. A summary of the recommendations of the New York Greenhouse Gas Task Force for reducing GHG emissions from the transportation sector is provided. Using a bottom-up analytical approach, the Center for Clean Air Policy-with advice from the task force-determined that New York can reduce transportation-sector emissions by 1.64 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) in 2010 (total emissions 20.9% above 1990 levels) and by 5.23 MMTCE in 2020 (total emissions 16.5% above 1990 levels) by implementing the task force’s recommendations. Achieving significant reductions in GHG emissions from transportation requires a comprehensive package of complementary measures, including shifting funding to more GHG-efficient alternatives such as transit and smart growth, adopting GHG emissions standards for light-duty vehicles (upon implementation in California), creating an indigenous biofuels program, and considering policy mechanisms to increase freight efficiency and high-speed rail options. To facilitate the implementation of these measures, the establishment of a state entity for reducing transportation-sector emissions is recommended with a goal of reducing transportation GHG emissions to 20% above 1990 levels by 2010, 10% above 1990 levels by 2020, and 1990 levels by 2030.